Este espaço é dos alunos da turma D do 11º ano da Escola Secundária de Emídio Navarro em Viseu e está inserido na disciplina de Física e Química A. Nele se escreverá sobre assuntos relacionados com a Física e com a Química, mas não só.

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Out 08

 As quatro forças fundamentais do universo

O Universo é governado por quatro forças fundamentais: a gravitacional, a electromagnética, a nuclear fraca e a nuclear forte. De todas as forças a gravitacional é a menos intensa  sendo 1040  vezes mais fraca que a nuclear forte. No entanto, o seu alcance é infinito. Ela só é considerada importante quando se fala de massas enormes como planetas,    estrelas, etc.

A força electromagnética também tem um alcance infinito mas ao contrário da gravitacional , a força electromagnética  é muito mais intensa sendo um centésimo mais fraca que a nuclear forte.

A  força nuclear fraca e a nuclear forte possuem um alcance muito pequeno que só se verifica a nível atómico. A nuclear fraca é mais fraca que a nuclear forte e que a electromagnética, a nuclear forte, como o nome indica é a mais intensa de todas as forças sendo ela termo de comparação com as outras.

Forças

Intensidade

Alcance

Gravitacional

10-40

Infinito

Electromagnética

10-2

Infinito

Nuclear fraca

10-5

10-16m

Nuclear forte

1

10-15m

 

 

Cada uma dessas forças tem a sua partícula (bosão) correspondente: o Gluão corresponde à força forte; o fotão à electromagnética; os bosões W e Z  para a força nuclear fraca e acredita-se que o gravitão seja o bosão responsável pela força gravitacional.

O modelo “Standard”  da física das partículas, explica como são interligadas três das quatro forças fundamentais do universo mas não  consegue integrar a força gravitacional; integra a força electromagnética, a nuclear fraca e forte e explica como interagem nas partículas da matéria. Mas apesar da força gravitacional ser a força com que estamos mais familiarizados, ela não tem lugar neste modelo. A teoria quântica descreve o mundo microscópico; a teoria da relatividade geral descreve o mundo macroscópico; as duas não conseguem entender-se e até hoje, ninguém conseguiu conjuga-las matematicamente no modelo “Standard”. Podemos apesar de tudo referir  que como a gravidade não tem grande influencia no mundo microscópico a física quântica integrou perfeitamente o modelo “Standard” embora este exclua uma das quatro forças fundamentais.

Existe ainda um modelo chamado “Superforça” em que foi provado que a elevadas temperaturas a força electromagnética e a força nuclear fraca se juntavam criando um força mais intensa. Os físicos de hoje acreditam que se aumentarmos  a temperatura para valores elevadíssimos a nuclear forte se juntaria às outra e se aumentarmos ainda mais até a força gravítica se juntaria criando assim uma superforça ( quando os cientistas dizem juntar querem dizer impossível de discernir as quatro forças umas das outras) .Este modelo, ao contrario do modelo “Standard”, consegue incluir a força gravitacional

Fontes

http://public.web.cern.ch/public/fr/Science/Superforce-fr.html

http://public.web.cern.ch/public/fr/Science/StandardModel-fr.html

http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/Science/Glossary-en.php

publicado por J.Royer.C às 19:57

o grande misterio de DEUS. O poder da criacao e = a evolucao. O HOMEM o consciente do universo, a gloria divina. JESUS
Roberto a 10 de Novembro de 2012 às 09:37

Quando o homem ainda não sabe explicar fatos observáveis de forma lógica e racional, apela para o misticismo e religião. Com o tempo, a ciência derruba tais dogmas religiosos e lança a luz do conhecimento sobre a escuridão da fé.

Tá trollando, certeza. Só reporta.
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